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Secondary & Highschool program

secondary school, often referred to as a high school or senior high school, is a school which provides secondary education, between the ages of 11 and 19 depending on location, after primary schooland before higher education.


Singapore, Singaporeans aged between 13 and 16 are required to attend secondary school after taking the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) at the end of primary education. The examination determines whether the student is ready to leave primary school by passing; places in secondary schools are allocated according to students' performance in the examination. The performance of the examination also determines which track or stream students end up in. The four different tracks or streams are "Special," "Express," "Normal (Academic)," or "Normal (Technical)." Starting 2008, the "Special" stream has merged with the "Express" stream and are now considered one single stream.[9] The Normal Technical, Normal Academic and Express stream students will sit for the GCE 'O' level examinations as a graduation requirement and to gain entry into a high school/technological college (e.g. junior college, polytechnic or institute of technical education).


In Germany, most states have a tripartite school system consisting of HauptschuleRealschule, and Gymnasium but with many variants. There is also the Gesamtschule, which is a comprehensive school awarding the same school leaving certificates as HauptschuleRealschule, and Gymnasium, respectively.

Hauptschule, which ends at grade 9 (age 14 or 15) with Hauptschulabschluss, and Realschule, which ends at grade 10 (age 15 or 16) with Mittlere Reife, are often followed by vocational education combined with an apprenticeship (dual education system). Gymnasium lasts until grade 12 or 13 (age 17,18 or 19) and leads to the Abitur. This type of school prepares students for studying at university or university of applied sciences.

In most German states, primary school ends with grade 4 (age 10) but some have grades 5 and 6 (age 11 and 12, respectively). Teachers then issue formal recommendations for which one of the three types of secondary school the students should attend based on academic ability.

Note that the German word Hochschule, the literal translation of "high school," means college or university, not high school (false friend).



In Canada secondary schools (also known as High schools) are educational institutions consisting most commonly of students enrolled in grades ten through twelve (ages fifteen to eighteen). Four provinces' high schools consist of grades nine to twelve, and in Quebec, high school years are Secondary 1 through to Secondary 5 (grades 711). Variations and subdivisions of these structures are fairly common. The majority of high schools in Canada schedule classes running from late August or early September to mid or late June with a summer break during July and August.

Canadian high schools offer many extracurricular activities, including athletics. The most popular sports in Canadian high schools are ice hockeyrugbysoccerlacrossefield hockeyfootballbaseballbasketballtrack and field athletics, and volleyball. Grad, also known as "senior prom" or "formal", is a very popular activity amongst graduating students. Many non-sporting extra-curricular activities are offered in Canadian high schools, including dramastudent newspaper club, yearbook club, and computer club.

United States of America[edit]


In the United States, the term 'secondary school' can refer to several types of schools. The first type is a traditional, comprehensive high school, comprising grades 912. Another type is alternative schools, including continuation schools, which serve those same grades. In some jurisdictions, 'secondary school' may refer to an institution that houses grades 712. The term 'secondary school' also categorically includes both middle school and high school. This page lists many secondary schools in the United States.

As a practical matter, while laws in most states mandate school attendance at least until age 16, many require attendance until age 17 or 18 (unless the student earns a diploma earlier, usually around age 16). State laws vary on the cut-off age for students to receive free public education services. Students can stay in high school past the age of 18 up to the maximum age limit to which free education must be offered in their state. Many states also have adult high schools for people around 18 and over. According to the National Center for Education Statistics [20] 81 percent of students graduated high school on time (within four years after having entered high school as freshmen) between 2012 and 2013. A high school diploma or General Educational Development (GED) certificate is usually required for entrance into a two or four-year college or university and to other post-secondary education programs.


High schools can usually be sub-classed as general high schools, vocational schools (VoTech schools), magnet schools, and college preparatory high schools (prep schools) and special high schools or alternative high schools. Most high schools are general high schools. These general population schools offer college preparatory classes for advanced students, general education classes for average students, and remedial courses for those who are struggling.

In some school districts exceptionally high-performing students are offered enrollment at a district college preparatory high school. Traditionally "prep schools" in North America were usually private institutions, though most medium or large public (state) school districts now offer university-preparatory schools for advanced students. Public prep schools draw the top students from their district and have strict entrance requirements. All academic classes offered in these schools are classified as honorsInternational Baccalaureate, or Advanced Placement.

In larger school districts, magnet schools are established to provide enhanced curriculum for one or more areas of study. Magnet schools may be created for a variety of topics such as mathematics, science, fine arts, and music. Admission (usually controlled) to magnet schools varies by school district in order to manage demand and resources. The school admission process may range from competitive admission standards to a lottery system.

Vocational high schools offer hands-on training to students that prepares them for careers in fields such as information technology, marketing, business, engineering and the medical professions. While some graduates of vocational or career and technical education high schools will go directly into a trade, others will pursue post-secondary education. The Association for Career and Technical Education is the largest national education association dedicated to career and technical education.

Special high schools cater for students who have special educational needs, e.g. because of learning difficulties or physical disabilities. Some special high schools are offered for students who have major disciplinary or mental health difficulties that make it problematic to educate them in traditional high school settings. Some special high schools are assigned as security risks, where the school houses students who are not yet old enough to legally leave school and are considered a danger to other students or teachers, but have not been convicted of a crime. Some special high schools are dedicated to students with drug or mental health difficulties and have medical and psychological staff on site. A few of these schools include a nursery and a child care staff so that teen parents can finish their education without having to find child care during the school day. Special high schools have their own campus, but sometimes are located in a section or wing of a general high school.

Another recent form of high school that has emerged is the online high school. According to the United States Department of Education Students in an online high school performed modestly better, on average, than those learning the same material through traditional instruction.

A number of American high schools now offer educational programs centered around travel, global citizenship, and the pedagogical concept of place-based learning. Some of these schools, like Think Global School and The Traveling School, do not rely on a single brick-and-mortar campus, instead using the world as their classroom by traveling to and living and learning in multiple countries each year. Other schools, like United World Colleges and Avenues, offer campuses in a number of different geographical locations that their students can study at.

High school in the United States usually begins in late August or early September of each year and ends in late May or early June. During the excess two and a half months, the students are given summer vacation. This is a hold-over from the time when children were needed on farms for planting and harvesting crops. In some cases schools use a year-round schedule.



In Australia, secondary school is called high school, from Year 7 to Year 12 in every state except South Australia, where high school is started in Year 8.[21] In both Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory, high school constitutes Years 7 to 10 with college (senior secondary) consisting of Year 11 and 12.

The later years of high school are often known as senior school (as opposed to junior school) where students prepare for school leaving exams such as the Higher School Certificate (HSC) in New South WalesVictorian Certificate of Education (VCE) in Victoria and similar names in other states.

A student's first examination marks in New South Wales and a combination of examination marks and coursework in other states (except Queensland) are indexed into the Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR). This index is usually the sole factor considered when applying for university courses. The ATAR was only introduced in 2009 (in NSW), and previously each state calculated its own final high school rank, such as the Universities Admission Index (UAI) in NSW and Equivalent National Tertiary Entrance Rank(ENTER) in Victoria.

Victorian students also have an opportunity to complete a high-school qualification under the Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning, which gives students practical experience in a trade or workplace. This requirement leads students into a trade or TAFE course.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, secondary school is often called college or high school (not to be confused with the term for tertiary education in other countries.) The majority of secondary schools run from Year 9 to Year 13 (formerly known as Forms 3 to 7) with students aged 12 to 18; in some areas, including Invercargill and most of the Southland Region, secondary school starts at Year 7 (formerly Form 1) with students aged from 10.

The current and most common qualification system implemented throughout New Zealand's secondary schools is the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA). NCEA 'standards' or tests/assignments begin usually with NCEA Level 1 in Year 11 (previously 5th form) and continue through to NCEA Level 2 at Year 12 (previously 6th form) and NCEA Level 3 at Year 13 (previously 7th form). Some assignments/tests are completed as early as Year 9 or 10, depending on the school and individual students. Some schools are also choosing to use IGCSE, as well as or instead of NCEA.[22]

High school students in New Zealand are taught a range of subjects. In year 9, the compulsory subjects are Mathematics, English, Physical Education, Social Studies, Science, and in some cases Māori (being the official language of some schools; such as Ngā Taiatea Wharekura.[23]) as well as optional classes, such as Technologies (e.g. Woodworking), Dance, Drama, Art, Graphics, Music, and a choice of languages. Common language options include Māori, Spanish, French, German and Japanese, depending on the geographic location of the school and availability of teachers able to teach the respective subjects.

It is common for students in New Zealand to wear uniforms. Uniform styles vary widely between schools and are generally more casual compared to the more 'formal' uniforms worn in Australia's equivalent schools.